Lignin constitutes between 15 and 30% of all lignocellulosic biomass, and is generally obtained from biomass treatment, as a byproduct in pulp and paper processing or as a residue in any bio-ethanol production process. Lignin can be combusted to provide heat and/or power; however, increasing the value of this residue by converting it to higher value materials can significantly enhance the sustainable exploitation of natural resources and competitiveness of biomass based-technologies.

A comprehensive list of references compiled by Andrea Mancera can be found in the following file: references.doc
Ms. Andrea Mancera is a postgraduate student at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, and obtained a Lignocarb award to work during 6 months at the Universite Henri Poincare under the supervision of Dr. Vanessa Fierro.

The nature of lignin by Ellen Mc Crady Alkaline Paper Advocate Volume 4, Number 4 Nov 1991